Veneers (from the English. Veneer - to cover with a thin layer, give an external gloss) - in the conventional sense - ceramic (porcelain) or composite plates, replacing enamel in visible areas of the teeth.
The technology of tooth veneering itself (viniring, from the English. Viniring) is a minimally invasive (low-traumatic) technology, i.e. this is a method of tooth restoration, in which the living tissue of the tooth requires minimal processing, and this fact determines the popularity of veneers.
One of the varieties of veneers is lumineers (Lumineers - very thin veneers), or as they are also called "Hollywood veneers."
The thickness and dimensions of veneers depend on the task: whether it is tooth restoration, the solution of functional problems or aesthetics, and therefore on the degree of preparation of teeth necessary.
The minimum thickness of the veneers is 0.2-0.3 mm.
The origin of the term “Veneers” is due to Hollywood and the American dentist Charles L. Pincus from California, who back in 1930 used ceramic pads to create a Hollywood smile. Read more: The history of veneers. Read more: The history of veneers.
What are veneers, types of veneers
Veneers can be classified by type of material and by the method of manufacture.
By type of material the most common are:
1. ceramic (porcelain) veneers, which are distinguished by the type of ceramic:
- pressed ceramics;
- feldspar ceramics;
- alumina ceramics;
2. zirconium oxide ceramics;
3. composite veneers.
Ceramic veneers are the best choice for aesthetic restoration of teeth, and exactly ceramic veneers we offer to our patients in CKS - digital computer dentistry in Kharkov.
The main advantages of ceramic veneers over their main competitor to veneers made of composite materials:
- biological compatibility with the human body;
- their optical and physical properties are close to those of dentin and tooth enamel;
- they are resistant to chemical influences, are not stained with food-grade natural dyes present in tea, coffee, juices, etc .;
- the surface of veneers has a high natural luster, which makes the frontal surface of the teeth mirrored, resistant to mechanical and physical influences;
- as a result, they do not change color, transparency and gloss throughout the entire period of operation;
- service life depends on specific solutions, but on average are from 10 to 20 years or more.
- Finesse All Ceramic (Dentsply/Ceramco, USA);
- Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar/Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein);
- Carrara Press (Elephant, The Netherlands);
- Cergo (Degussa-Dental, Germany);
- Optec OPC (Jeneric/Pentron Inc., USA).
These brands exist on the dental market for many years, they have been inherent in all the positive properties of this class of materials. However, in recent years, feldspar ceramics and glass ceramics enriched with zirconium have been in serious competition with them.
What is the difference between veneers made of porcelain, ceramics, glass ceramics?
It's all about the various terminologies used in dentistry as an industry, science, marketing and other industries.
In fact, we are talking about ceramics. Adding various impurities and compounds to ceramics - they achieve new properties of materials, new terms are born. For example, the appearance of the term dental porcelain is similar to the appearance of the term porcelain in everyday life (at first there was ceramic dishes, then Chinese porcelain, Vienna porcelain, then again ceramic and glass-ceramic dishes, but already modern).
The variety of materials for making ceramic veneers is very large. However, one should move from the classification describing the material to the classification describing the manufacturing technology.
Veneers on a refractor. Historically, the first appeared manufacturing method, which involved laying out the ceramic mass on a special form. This form was a refractory material, and does not change its size and shape at high temperatures, at which the firing of ceramic masses occurs. During firing, porcelain crystallizes at high temperature, acquiring a glassy structure and takes the form of a “refractory”. This technology exists today and is called refractor work. It provides the highest opportunities for the artistry of a dental technician. But the technology is very complicated; it requires a large number of stages to prepare refractory forms. As you know, the more complex the technology, the more errors and failures are possible during operation. The main disadvantage of veneers on a refractor is complexity and duration;
Ceramic veneers. This type of veneers owes its appearance to materials that, at high temperature, acquire plastic properties and, under the influence of pressure, acquire the necessary shape. Press the heated glass, due to which the ceramics got the name of pressed glass. The best-known brand is (LS2 lithium disilicate glass ceramic) IPS e.max Press and IPS e.max Ceram from Ivoclar Vivadent;
CAD / CAM veneers. These are veneers obtained by presentation on a numerically controlled machine. In the dental center of the CKS, we use this particular production technology as the most modern and progressive. CAD / CAM technologies make it possible to produce not only veneers, but any types of dental restorations currently in use. The technological chain of tooth production using computer technology we described in the article "What restoration of teeth to choose in Kharkov dentistry." Our clinic sees a lot of advantages in digital dentistry for each patient and sees in the digital protocol of treatment unlimited possibilities for improving the quality of dental services, the appearance of new products, new technologies and new directions in the development of dentistry. More information about digital dentistry on the main page of our website.
Ceramic veneers are the best solution to date used in aesthetic dentistry not only in Kharkov, but throughout the world.
Composite veneers are made from polymer polymeric materials. This type of veneering is the most inexpensive and therefore requires your attention. After all, it is important to understand what the patient loses, winning in price.
Composite veneers were the first in the dental market. Dentists quickly realized that the filling material can be used not only as a material for hole patching, but also as a material with which to close the outer surface of the teeth. This was sometimes called tooth restoration, sometimes composite cladding, sometimes composite veneers.
The advantages of composite veneers are their low price, the ability to do without the services of dental technicians. That is why they are usually divided into direct and indirect veneers.
- The dentist makes direct veneers when you visit the dental office ("directly" on the spot), sometimes they are also called therapeutic veneers. Direct veneers are made of composite materials (special resins, photopolymer materials, polymers) in one visit to the dentist.
- Indirect veneers are made by dental technicians based on models built from casts taken from your teeth. Sometimes indirect veneers are called orthopedic. Their installation requires more than one visit to the dentist.
In the 90s, expensive technologies were unavailable in our country, so the manufacture of veneers from light-cured materials was very popular and practiced in every dental office. If the doctor followed the technology of using light-cured composites, then such veneers have served for many years. In the article “Composite veneers” we explain the technology of such veneering with a few examples and demonstrate how such structures behave for more than 10 years.
There is another type of division of composite veneers:
- Composite veneers made individually. These are all the species that we described above;
- factory-made veneers in 2-3 standard sizes. Such plastic plates have a special name - composers. To use them, it is necessary to adjust the standard form of plastic to the individual shape of the patient’s teeth.
Zirconia is one of the varieties of ceramic materials used in dentistry without metal. Therefore, zirconium dioxide refers to aesthetic materials. They are made using unique CAD / CAM technology.
Zirconia veneers are often offered on the websites of dental clinics, but in practice they are not widely used. The adhesion strength to zirconia veneers is very low. In other words, the bonding strength of such veneers is very, very weak, so the doctor who proposes to make zirconium veneers should be considered frivolous.
But the use of zirconium oxide as a material that improves the properties of porcelain is a really great innovation. Remember this type of material - Suprinity.
VITA SUPRINITY PC VITA offers a product that represents a new generation of glass-ceramic materials. In the innovative process, glass ceramics are enriched with zirconia (approximately 10% by weight). This forms the first lithium silicate ceramic reinforced with zirconia (ZLS).
Differences between veneers and lumineers
To make the teeth look aesthetically pleasing and their volume is natural, you must first prepare the teeth. To do this, grind the outer surface of the teeth. The tooth tissue in such a volume as the thickness of the veneer will be removed. This technique of many patients who want a perfect smile stops them from making veneers.
Over time, dentists have found an alternative to veneers. These are lumineers. Lumineers do not require grinding of the teeth, they are glued without preparation. But teeth with lumineers look unnaturally convex.
Veneers require the preparation of teeth. Lumineers do not require tooth preparation.
Teeth with veneers look natural. Teeth with lumineers look unnaturally convex.
Which teeth are more prone to decay or carious lesions, with veneers or with lumineers?
Teeth with lumineers are more susceptible to destruction. Since ceramic or other plates glued to the teeth creating an unnatural shape create poor conditions for self-cleaning.
But veneers made not of high quality are the most dangerous. If the veneers are glued with gaps and inaccuracies, this will lead to depressurization of the teeth and the development of caries. Improper cementing of veneers will result in misalignment and damage to the veneers.
How veneers differ from crowns?
You need to start with the concept of a dental crown. The crown can be: ceramic-metal, porcelain, all-ceramic, zirconia, etc. The term "dental crown" is understood by almost any adult. But their meaning is far from always understood correctly. Everyone understands that a crown is a protective cap dressed on a tooth. In fact, a dental crown is an artificial tooth enamel.
- surrounds the tooth from all sides;
- tightly connected to deeper dentin;
- performs the protective function of the tooth;
- and most importantly - performs an aesthetic function.
An artificially made cap that meets four requirements is called a dental crown.
But what is dental veneer?
Dental veneer is only half the crown. The veneer closes the tooth only from the outside and performs four important functions from the outer surface of the tooth. Veneer, like artificial enamel, should reproduce a beautiful aesthetics - the color and shape of the tooth from the outer surface. For this property, people choose veneers.
The material from which the veneer is made must be durable, then it will reliably protect the tooth. The veneer must be properly made and firmly fixed to the tooth, then artificial enamel will be firmly connected to natural dentin and the veneer will be durable.
Why only the outside? Why is veneer (half-crown) better than a whole crown?
All in order to grind less natural tooth tissue.
And so, unlike dental crowns, veneers do not cover the entire tooth, but one surface.
Veneers are used to decorate the front surface of the teeth. Veneers allow you to make a person’s smile impeccable: perfect tooth shape and perfect color.
Indications for the manufacture of veneers
Indications for the manufacture of veneers are any defects in enamel, be it structural defects or color defects. And this is logical, because the veneer is an artificial enamel. Enamel defects made up by veneers can be associated with a violation of the formation of hard tooth tissues or acquired defects in hard tooth tissues.
Diagnoses associated with impaired hard tissue formation
Such conditions can manifest as defects in the structure of enamel or a violation of the normal color of the teeth.
- Imperfect tooth shape;
- Violation of the proportions of the crown of the tooth;
- Any types of enamel dysplasia;
- Tetracycline teeth;
- Fluorous lesions of the teeth.
- Crowded teeth position;
- Diastema and tremas;
- Violation of the group of teeth (For example, the canine occupies the position of the incisor).
Acquired defects in hard tissues of teeth
- Enamel necrosis;
- Chipped teeth, pathological abrasion;
- Carious lesions on the vestibular surface of the teeth;
- Poor composite restorations;
- Teeth discolored as a result of endodontic treatment.
- The teeth are light yellow.
This color of teeth is a criterion for healthy teeth. In modern society, it is difficult to imagine a respectable person with yellow teeth. Teeth whitening is an ordinary, familiar procedure for a huge number of dental patients. Veneers are also in demand in the niche of improving the image of modern man. Veneers are used for aesthetic reasons in order to change the color of teeth to lighter tones.
- Small abnormalities of the position of the teeth.
Such jagged teeth can be treated with orthodontics. But for some patients, orthodontic treatment seems impossible for social reasons.
Contraindications for the manufacture of veneers
Absolute contraindications for the manufacture of veneers are:
- Gross violation of occlusion;
- Decompensated forms of bruxism;
- Mental illness
- Defects in the hard tissues of the teeth precluding the possibility of adhesive attachment of veneers to the teeth.
Relative contraindications for the manufacture of veneers are:
- Anomalies in the position of the teeth (uneven teeth) and malocclusion;
- Poor oral hygiene;
- Periodontal disease;
- Low clinical crowns of teeth;
- Compensated forms of bruxism.
Living with veneers is no different than living with normal healthy teeth. After all, veneers are an artificial substitute for enamel. Their properties are close to those of normal human enamel. Therefore, eating can be normal.
But, just like natural teeth, you can’t:
- crack nuts;
- remove insulation from wires;
- open beer bottles;
- fasten various fasteners;
- bite refined sugar or bite hard crackers.)))
Teeth covered with veneers, like ordinary teeth, need to be thoroughly brushed twice a day with a toothbrush and floss for interdental spaces.
Compliance with hygiene rules minimizes the accumulation of plaque, which means the risk of tooth decay on the tooth surface near the surface of the veneer.
Properly executed veneers do not create bumps, snags or undercuts creating an obstacle for the smooth advancement of tooth flosses and toothbrush bristles.
The price of vene
The cost of a veneer made directly in the patient’s mouth (composite veneer) is quite comparable to the cost of composite restorations.
The cost of ceramic veneers consists of two components: payment for the work of a dentist and a dental technician. The technology of ceramic veneers is more complex and time-consuming, so the price is much higher.
The question of price and pricing for ceramic veneers is the topic of a separate article (see the price of ceramic veneers).
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